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Archive for January, 2018

Personalizing Medicine with the Organ-on-a-Chip Technology: Where Do We Stand?

Personalizing Medicine with the Organ-on-a-Chip Technology: Where Do We Stand?

Creating a miniaturized copy of yourself may sound crazy a decade ago, but not that much anymore – it is gradually realized by the organ-on-a-chip technology, little by little.

Imagine you get sick, you go to the doctor, who prescribes a medicine to you, most often empirically. You return to home, take the medicine, and heal. Or sometimes symptoms continue, or occasionally worsen. What do you do? You return to the doctor, complaining that the medicine does not work, and then receive another set of medicine, again very likely, by empiricism. The second medicine may heal you, or if unlucky, you may need to repeat this process for a few additional rounds prior to final recovery. Who knows. This scenario perhaps sounds familiar to most people, because it is how today’s medicine is practiced.A step forward, if the illness is much more serious than just a cold, modern technology may start to come into the play of its treatment. For example, patients with cancer typically receive molecular and genetic profiling to identify mutations, which are subsequently used to determine the class of drugs to prescribe. However, a biomarker often does not translate into a successful clinical response to the selected therapy. In a well-known case, cancer patients with wild-type KRAS protein are treated with Cetuximab, but only about 3 in 10 will ever respond to the drug, while the rest, unfortunately, instead of being cured, suffer side effects without noticeable benefits. (more…)

Organs-on-Chips and Animal Lovers: Dovetailing on the Medical Frontier

Organs-on-Chips and Animal Lovers: Dovetailing on the Medical Frontier

The impact of organoid research on popular culture is nowhere more evident than in the common ground between innovation and animal rights proponents. Organs-on-chips harbor the potential to reduce animal testing of new drugs and cosmetics. In 2017, the U.S. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences funded 13 institutions with awards to develop tissue-on-chip models. Several of the awards mirror four-legged friends’ enduring goals.

Muscle disease is one example. One of the NCATS awards is for “Systemic Inflammation in Microphysiological Models of Muscle and Vascular Disease.” This Duke University project focuses on skeletal muscle and blood vessels. The models will replicate inflammation, in order to assess variation in responses to drugs. A similar award went to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center for “Development of a Microphysiological Organ-on-Chip System to Model Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Parkinson’s Disease,” to highlight novel biomarkers. There is no cure for ALS, a neurological condition that stops voluntary muscle movements including chewing, walking, talking and ultimately, breathing. Animal rights proponents welcome these endeavors because they have been vexed for years by the use of dogs for research that leaves them crippled with muscular dystrophy and unable to walk, swallow, or breathe. (more…)

Microfluidics Technologies for Circulating Tumor Cell Analysis: Opportunities and Challenges

Microfluidics Technologies for Circulating Tumor Cell Analysis: Opportunities and Challenges

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that are shed from cancerous tumors into the circulatory systems. CTCs are present in early-stage cancers and are reported to relate to disease prognosis. In recent years, CTCs have drawn increasing attention in both academic and industrial research, as they offer opportunities for the early detection, monitoring, treatment evaluation of cancer and its metastasis 1.

CTCs are challenging to capture, isolate and characterize in nature. First, CTCs are extremely rare in patients’ blood samples. One CTC usually exists among a background of millions of blood cells. Furthermore, CTCs are highly heterogeneous in physical characteristics and biological properties. No separation technology which is based on a single capture mechanism can produce pure and representative CTC subpopulations. In the traditional liquid biopsy, CTCs are isolated either by immunoaffinity strategies or by biophysical features differentiation. However, existing macro-scale isolation systems suffer important drawbacks, such as low capture efficiency, incomplete automation and low viability of captured CTCs 2. As a promising alternative, microfluidic technologies have gained tremendous interest in the field. Microfluidic technologies create devices that are at or smaller than the cellular length scale and enable accurate capturing and manipulation at single cell level. These technologies also offer precise control of fluid flow, which can greatly facilitate affinity reactions and physical separation. Moreover, on a microfluidic chip, CTC capturing and next-step analysis can be integrated to minimize intermediate sample handling and shorten the processing time. Above all, microfluidic approaches allow gentle isolation of live cells and thus enable many downstream analyses that rely on captured live CTCs 3. (more…)

Democratizing health care access in developing countries

Democratizing health care access in developing countries

In the past decade, technology advances have focused on generating comfort for a few. However, academics and entrepreneurs are shifting the luxury trend in order to serve society as a whole.

Scientific research was never meant to stay on papers. Just as Lab-on-a-Chip devices true destiny is in poor communities in developing countries. Academics all around the world have worked with a Lab-on-a-Chip concept, imagining that the power of a state-of-art laboratory could fit in their pocket. Contrary to popular belief, engineers and scientist are highly creative people, otherwise, they wouldn’t be able to imagine complex micro-manufacturing of chips to make health testing easier.

Jules Verne, a French author, image a vehicle that could go underwater in “Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea.” Years later, visionary scientists were able to make a submarine made true. The military industry propelled this and others innovations, but after the war, they have been able to serve in deep oceans explorations. Today’s battles are not fought on fronts but with corruption and poverty.

Prof. Marc Madou from University of California, Irvine and Dario Mager from KIT university showing a lab-on-a-CD.

Prof. Marc Madou from University of California, Irvine and Dario Mager from KIT university showing a lab-on-a-CD. Credit: Monica Arreola

Lab-on-a-Chip is both a device and a sensor. By being a device the size of a human palm, the transportation is made easier. But in order to work as a laboratory, sensors need to be attached to the micro canals of the device. Inspiration à la Verne was what made Marc Madou build a Lab-on-a-Chip in the size of a CD-Rom. The professor of University of California, Irvine and of Tecnológico de Monterrey (Mexico) realized that while predecessors have managed to create the device and the sensors, there was still a need to analyze the results of the tests. (more…)